The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy (TE) and nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) techniques in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma.
All studies were identified by searching electronic sources (PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Embase) until February 5, 2018. Primary outcome was mean intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction at 6, 12, and 24 months. Complications, number of antiglaucomatous medications, and visual outcomes were also evaluated.
Twenty-one studies were included. Ten studies compared TE with deep sclerectomy (DS), 5 with viscocanalostomy (VC), 1 study with both DS and VC, and 5 with canaloplasty (CP). TE was superior to DS, VC, and CP in reducing IOP at 6 and 12 months, and to DS at 24 months. When comparing TE to VC and to CP at 24 months, there was no significant difference in IOP reduction. Hypotony, choroidals, anterior chamber shallowing or flattening, and cataract formation or progression were more associated with TE than with NPGSs. TE was more effective in reducing antiglaucomatous medications than VC and CP.
TE is more effective in reducing IOP. TE presents a higher risk of complications as compared with NPGS, except for hyphema.